The European Commission adopted the second generation of text health warnings for tobacco packaging. The 14 new warnings include warnings that tobacco use plays a causal role in mouth and throat cancer, can cause visual impairments as well as dental and gum disease. Parental smoking also acts as an incentive for children's smoking. EU member countries will have to implement the new text warnings within two years. Written health warnings on tobacco products sold in the EU have been compulsory since 2003 when the Tobacco Products Directive entered into force, and the legislation foresees periodic updating of the health warnings.